Literary translation is a unique form of translation, and practitioners need to think creatively as they struggle first to decode the source text, and then to convey it in a style that meets the very demanding standards of a reader of fiction.
In a recent co-translation project of a 21st-century Chinese-language novel featuring almost exclusively ethnic Uyghur characters, the close collaboration of two bilingual translators – native English speaker Bruce Humes and myself, a native Chinese speaker – enabled our rendition to touch upon the essence of Uyghur culture and present it in English through meaningful dialogue.
Confessions of a Jade Lord (时间悄悄的嘴脸), by Uyghur author Alat Asem (阿拉提·阿斯木), depicts the life of a big-shot jade trader based in Xinjiang, Northwest China.
In the literary publishing world, it is common practice to commission a translator who works into his or her native language. In actual practice, however, there are advantages to having a co-translator of the source language on board from the outset.
In Chinese, verbs are not conjugated – this makes it confusing and time-consuming for the native English speaker to recognise when certain actions take place and thus determine which tense to use, especially when the storyline switches frequently between past, present and future.
Greater translation accuracy is assured because the draft is scrutinised against the original text by a pair of fresh eyes. This can help to avoid misinterpretations of the source text before the translation reaches the final editor, who may not be fluent in the source language.
The co-translators complement each other due to their distinct cultural backgrounds. Cultural nuances and the subtle tone and mood of the characters and scenes might be missed by a person who did not grow up surrounded by the source language, and finding their most suitable rendition in the target language can be equally difficult for someone who doesn’t speak it as their mother tongue.
When both translators have solid training in literature, their collaboration can truly breathe life into a novel. As my co-translator Bruce Humes points out, a truly moving translation starts “from the bone, not the skin”.
At the drafting stage we put the translation alongside the original text paragraph by paragraph, to make sure nothing was missed or misinterpreted.
Once we had both edited the draft at least once, we deleted the Chinese original and focused on tweaking the English. Without visual “interference” of the source language, we were much more likely to notice expressions that didn’t sound right, or didn’t fit a character or a particular scene.
From the very beginning, we realised that giving the translation an authentic Uyghur flavour would help the novel stand out in the market. This meant using the Uyghur terms for cultural icons, character names, and the way Uyghur men address each other in daily life.
Instead of pursuing a purely “British” or “American” feel, we tried to preserve the author’s unique Uyghur-inspired voice: poetic and philosophical when a character was lost in contemplation; or humorous, down-to-earth, even crude and full of action when the jade bosses clashed.
We also went one step further – we noticed a few inconsistencies in the narration, and the author was quite happy to give us suggestions. With the publisher’s permission, we took out repetitive parts, shifted some paragraphs around, and italicised surreal scenes and Uyghur anecdotes.
More importantly, we experimented with the tense by putting the beginning chapters in the past, and switched to the present when the protagonist went back to his hometown, thus creating a dramatic turn that wasn’t obvious in the original.
The author Alat Asem, our Uyghur cultural consultant Nurahmat Ahat and my co-translator Bruce Humes are all open-minded polyglots who made this project a thoroughly enjoyable experience for me.
At a time when AI might replace human translators and interpreters very soon, I firmly believe that human value shall prevail, because we are willing to reach out and work with like-minded people of other cultures, so that the wider world can discover and appreciate lesser-known cultures in their genuine and beautiful form.
By Jun Liu
Click here for an excerpt of Bruce Humes and Jun Liu’s translation of Confessions of a Xinjiang Jade Lord.
Click here for Jun Liu’s unabridged article about the translation of this novel, which was first presented at the NZSTI 2017 Conference on June 10.
Caption: The novel 时间悄悄的嘴脸 by Uyghur author Alat Asem (阿拉提·阿斯木) has been translated by Bruce Humes and Jun Liu into English as Confessions of a Xinjiang Jade Lord, to be published in 2017 by China Translation & Publishing House.